The main problem I see with the theodicy of the Greater Good is that it is a logical philosophical answer to a purely emotional question.
People who turn away from God because of the problem of evil are burdened and tormented by the world as they see it. They are in a crisis in that they have to imagine an all powerful God who cares for all that we care about and knows when a single hair falls from our head yet by the state of things appears supremely aloof and unconcerned.
Im not saying this is true Im just describing their dilemma.
The idea of God allowing evil for a greater good is cold and hollow for these folks I think. BUT…lets look at the problem of evil in the light of the hope of Universalism.
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Rom 8:18
If we expand that based on universalist theology suddenly we can offer a God who promises to give us all a beautiful forever with him.
This is where I think Job is useful. Had he known that everything would be restored to him twice over would he have made so many dark existential conclusions?
You say yea but he lost his kids! How does having more kids compensate for that pain? Well he has the hope that he will see them again in heaven.
Hope is the salve that heals the wounds cut into our souls by the great mysteries of life and existence. We may not ever be able to explain why evil and suffering are allowed on this side of the grave. But having the hope of the great reconciliation of all things back to God makes it bearable.