4th view of human destiny: "wider hope" view


Copy of an e-mail I sent to Freeman Barton (Advent Christian Church pastor):-
"I enjoyed your “Evangelical Debate about Hell, 1974-1989” article, in “Henceforth journal”, Spring 2010 (which I have just received), where you wrote (page 24):- "Alternatives ? basically there are 3: Trad view (TV); C.I. & universalism **.
** see Dr Robin Parry aka Gregory Macdonald (the “Evangelical Universalist”) who was Paternoster Publishing’s editor (2001-2010) & since 2010 has been working at Wipf & Stock, at:-
However, even Edward Fudge & Mark Galli both agree that there are, in fact, 4 views !!!

Edward Fudge:- Edward Fudge is publishing a 3rd (revised) edition of his “The Fire that Consumes” book (in June: Cascade Books), & has got Prof. Richard Bauckham to write the new “foreward”.
I welcome Edward Fudge’s 3rd edition, of course, but I regret the fact that he will not be taking this opportunity to mention something he has admitted to me personally*** & also to his “GracEmail” readership***: there are in fact 4 views of the future life, not 3 … Eternal conscious torment in “hell fire”; Conditional Immortality; Universalism/Larger Hope & Future Probation/Wider Hope (see below).
*** private correspondence from Edward Fudge:-

Mark Galli:-

 The above quote, is Mark's reply to my e-mail to him (see below):-
  "Mark, I very much enjoyed your recent CT article on Rob Bell, where you explained that the 3 views on "future destiny" were: eternal torment; C.I./annihilationism & universalism.  But, can I remind you that there is, in fact, a much-neglected

4th view (sharing similarities with C.I.) … as acknowledged by Edward Fudge, no less !!
Very briefly, it is “universal, physical resurrection … for judgment/opportunity”, sometimes referred to as the “Wider Hope” OR “future probation”.
This view was held by many notable Christian believers (in the past), including Dr Alfred Edersheim; F W Farrar; Archbishop William Temple; Joseph Rotherham; William Brookman; George Storrs; James Langton Clarke … & was recently expounded by Sharon L Baker, in her 2010 book: “Razing Hell” (Abingdon Press, 978-0664236540).
Scriptural proof:-

  1. 2 Corinthians 5:14,15,19-21
  2. Romans 5:18 c.f. 1 Cor 15:22
  3. 1 Timothy 2:4**,6
    ** n.b. that sozo/soter (in the NT) can refer to either healing; physical deliverance; resurrection to immortality OR physical resurrection, for judgment/opportunity (its meaning here !!!).
    The Second Adam, Jesus Christ, has UNconditionally paid the price for the First Adam’s original sin, which is the basis for future, universal, physical resurrection … for judgment/opportunity.
    This still leaves “personal sin(s)”, which must, of course, be repented of in the future judgment, if men & women are to continue living on into the future. There are 2 types of reconciliation in the NT: one Unconditional (1 Tim 2:6, universal substitutionary-ransom); the other conditional … because there are 2 types of sin: Adamic & personal.
    Check up on the following sources:- tyndalehouse.com/tynbul/libr … thView.pdf
    James Langton Clarke M.A., late fellow of the University of Durham (in his 1905 book: The Eternal Saviour-Judge", (2nd ed. 1905, London: John Murray.) quotes Dr Alfred Edersheim’s “The Life & Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol 2”,(London: Longmans, Green & Co, 1884): 795) … as follows:-[code]

** IOW, universal ransom/universal resurrection … for judgment/opportunity (by the future Saviour-Judge), see 1 Timothy 2:4,6, where sozo means “resurrected for judgment”: a “universal” physical resurrection “universal (physical) resurrection” is held by C.I (spirit-sleep adherents) (whereas, post-mortem evangelism etc. is held by immortal-soulist) adherents of this 4th view: the Wider Hope view]".
Finally, my comment (for discussion):- “isn’t it curious that noone seems to want to admit the existence (even) of this Wider Hope/future probation view … much less discuss it ???” Temple Farrar


Welcome to the forum Temple Farrar, although it looks like you have been around for longer than me :slight_smile: Sorry, I had a hard time following the above essay. If you have time, would you mind formatting it some more? e.g. Maybe put the quotes into inside BBCode e.g. [code]

[/code] as that will make it look like this (which I think is easier to read):