aion is the translated Greek word for olam- the original Hebrew word(imo)
olam is a word that carries within a meaning that is of varying nature and duration, determined in conjunction with the subject to which it is attached.
There is a subtle shift in meaning in that translation (olam to aionios). olam is translated, “ancient times” in Genesis 6:4 “They were the heroes of old(olam), men of renown.”
from an unused word
long duration, antiquity, futurity
ages (1), all successive (1), always (1), ancient (13), ancient times (3), continual (1), days of old (1), eternal (2), eternity (3), ever (10), Everlasting (2), everlasting (110), forever (136), forever and ever (1), forever* (70), forevermore* (1), lasting (1), long (2), long ago (3), long past (1), long time (3), never* (17), old (11), permanent (10), permanently (1), perpetual (29), perpetually (1).
As you can see the word/concept goes forward and backwards, an indeterminate time attached to whatever it is describing.
olam also carried the idea of world, and was used by the Hebrews- and still is to this day, to communicate an idea of different worlds in different times or ages. “olam ha-ba” means “world to come” in Hebrew today and describs ajewish perspective of the age of restoration and light for the righteous. “olam ha-ze” means “this present world” and it means the age and systems and mystical properties of this world of darkness and confusion.
Paul echoes this in Galatians 1:4 “this present evil age”(aionios)
I personally see the ages like a rose blooming, revealing the “manifaceted wisdom of God” in stages.
For instance, aion is in Hebrews 13 times… it is translated in one place “world”, another place “world to come”. This is because they were translating from olam, which in its 438 uses in the OT often carries the connotation of place and time, not just time. Not place as in specific location, like a city, but rather place as in unknown worlds and far distant times and lands and ages.
This is why in matthew 25 when Jesus speaks of aionian(olam) pyr(fire) or aionian(olam) kolass(correction)…versus aionian(olam) zoe(life), perceiving as a Hebrew, even if He spoke Aramaic or Greek His thoughts were out of the Hebrew mind and Hebrew scriptures, so there would be no contradiction between “forever” and “age-during”. If I could transliterate it i would read it
“These will go away for/into the time/age/other-world appropriate to correction, the righteous into a time/age/other-world appropriate for life.”
For instance, aion is in Hebrews 13 times… it is translated “world” and “world to come”. This is because they were translating from olam, which in its 438 uses in the OT often carries the connotation of place and time, not just time. Not place as in specific location, like a city, but rather place as in unknown worlds and far distant times and lands and ages, as I said above.
Hebrews 1:2; “through whom He made the world”(this time/age/world)
Hebrews 1:8; “your throne O God is forever and ever”(eis aiona tou aionos) To the age of the age means(imo) until God becomes all in all and is described in 1 Cor 15:24 “then comes the end”
Hebrews 5:6; "“YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER(eis ton aiona) ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK.”
Here we see “to the age” again. I think this means until the all in all. After that there will be no preists, or kings, for God will be “all in all”.
Hebrews 6:5; and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age(kjv world) to come,
Hebrews 9:26 Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages(ton aionian- of the ages) He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself.
Notice here(9:26) the Holy Spirit indicates that the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus is the “consummation of the ages” the nexus point of all the ages, because the Lamb was slain "from the foundation of the wold(kosmos)- the first thought in the mind of God(seed-logos) around which everything else, all creation and all the ages-the "adminsitration suiatble to the fulness of times’ was planned.
Hebrews 11:3 By faith we understand that the worlds(olam-age worlds) were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible.
Hebrews 13:8; Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever(eis tous aionas-for/into the ages) .
Hebrews 13:21 working in us that which is pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever(eis tous aionas ton aionon). Amen.
“eis tous aionas ton aionon” is an interesting phrase because in the OT olam was frequently doubed, “olam olam” to mean(imo) forever, or “throughout the ages”.
As an example of how critical proper translation can be to proper understanding, the little word “eis” is translated “into” or “for” almost all the time everywhere, but “to” in most of these verses.
“to the age” means something signifigantly different that “into the ages” or “for the ages”
Just a few points. there is a lot more to be said about aionian/olam times.