The Evangelical Universalist Forum

second death in the Targumim - annihilation

I came of across of this and thought it’s quite interesting, of course, the Targumim (aswell as the apocrypha like Enoch) have no authority on the subject but I’m interested in your opinions; these are the relevant quotes:

tentmaker.org/books/mercyand … t_ch8.html
(very interesting article, dealing with the ancient Jewish point of view on that subject, it seems they overwhelmingly tended to annihilationism)

in another passage (Isaiah 22:14) ‘second death’ seems to mean transmigration of souls but this view is opposed here, while the writer uses quotes from the Targumim to defend annihilationism:

source: biblicalperspectives.com/boo … tion/6.htm

what would you say to oppose this view if ‘second death’ was actually used in Jewish literature to denote utter extinction?, and do you maybe know links where I can read the Targumim? I found several but none of them contain all the passages mentioned here.

I wonder what the original language word translated “world” is? Olam? They shall not live “in the olam to come”, in the age to come (e.g. the millennium)? After which there is another age or ages (e.g. the new earth age/s)? Or another world or worlds? Evidently some ancient Jews thought there would be a finite Messianic age when the Messiah would rule (from hundreds to thousands of years) to be followed by another age. St Paul (the ex-Pharisee) spoke of multiple future ages, as do many NT verses.

This was posted in the following thread:

“Just doing a quick Google search, I found this on Wikipedia, and it does have a citation, but I’m wondering if anyone can back it up:”

"Targum Isaiah has three occurrences. The first is 22:14 where the Aramaic paraphrases the Hebrew as: “This sin will not be forgiven you until you die the second death.” "

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_death#Targum_Isaiah

“Many sources that discuss the word “olam” write that it does not mean ”world” anywhere in Tanach except perhaps Kohelet 3:11.”

https://www.jewishlinknj.com/features/22659-what-is-the-meaning-of-the-word-olam

Does anybody have this book or is willing to purchase it:

http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/10.1163/ej.9789004165977.i-646.110

Sven, the vast majority of it was available as a free preview when i visited here:

"Empsychoi Logoi — Religious Innovations in Antiquity: Studies in Honour of …

edited by Alberdina Houtman, Albert de Jong, Magda Misset-Van de Weg" [p.405ff]

https://books.google.ca/books?id=Hj6wCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA405&lpg=PA405&dq=The+Fate+Of+The+Wicked:+Second+Death+In+Early+Jewish+And+Christian+Texts&source=bl&ots=gK1sLLcT3J&sig=Uni7e39PDOdSEVaSn4jNJkUwLQ4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwit2_vfldveAhV1NH0KHUnOCt0Q6AEwBHoECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Fate%20Of%20The%20Wicked%3A%20Second%20Death%20In%20Early%20Jewish%20And%20Christian%20Texts&f=false

Also this on the same subject may be of interest:

"Educating Early Christians through the Rhetoric of Hell: “Weeping and …
By Meghan Henning” [p.135ff]

https://books.google.ca/books?id=Ok-Mcx7-zU8C&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135&dq=The+Fate+Of+The+Wicked:+Second+Death+In+Early+Jewish+And+Christian+Texts&source=bl&ots=7hjL2W2iMv&sig=O2m47abOItfWITgRhRTJ5KG-5Ck&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwit2_vfldveAhV1NH0KHUnOCt0Q6AEwA3oECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Fate%20Of%20The%20Wicked%3A%20Second%20Death%20In%20Early%20Jewish%20And%20Christian%20Texts&f=false

Thank you, that corresponds well with what I already cited.

Hi sven,
Why I believe Annihilationism is not an option.

1 Corinthians 15:25-26.

25 For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet.
26 The [last enemy] that will be destroyed is [death]

The order of this is found in Rev 20:14-15.

14 Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. 15 And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire.

We clearly see that those not found in the book of life, get cast into the lake of fire [after] the the [last enemy] to be destroyed which is death. So death is no longer an option. Therefore according to 1 Corinthians 15:25-26 those remaining enemies will be alive until they are brought under Christ’s feet Isaiah 45:23 + Phillip 2:10. And Christ will reign for as long is needed to achieve the restitution of [All] things, including [All] People. Romans 5:18-19.

I think Jude 12 is another Jewish litterature reference to the second death. Second death concept is probably from egyptian mythology. It seems to me that if anyone can die a second time, they have given a blessing from God and then failed God. Yet this second death is not their end. All reign and authority has not been subjected in Revelation but Paul tells it will be so later in time.